Many Ghanaians are multilingual, speaking one or two indigenous languages beside their native dialects and English.
Although Ghana is bounded by francophone nations on all sides, few Ghanaians are proficient in French. As a relatively new nation, Ghana has not developed an extensive tradition of collective symbols.
The land surface of 92,100 square miles (238,540 square kilometers) is dominated by the ancient Precambrian shield, which is rich in mineral resources, such as gold and diamonds.
The land rises gradually to the north and does not reach an altitude of more than 3,000 feet (915 meters).
Ghanaian national dress, kente cloth, is another source of common identity and pride.
It is handwoven into intricate patterns from brilliantly colored silk.
By the time the Portuguese first established themselves on the coast in the fifteenth century, kingdoms had developed among various Akan-speaking and neighboring groups and were expanding their wealth, size, and power.The population is almost exclusively African, as Ghana has no history of intensive European settlement.There is a small Lebanese community, whose members settled in the country as traders.While somewhat mythical, these evocations of noble origins, in combination with a rich cultural heritage and a militant nationalist movement, have provided this ethnically diverse country with unifying symbols and a sense of common identity and destiny.
Over forty years of political and economic setbacks since independence have tempered national pride and optimism.Immigration from other African countries, notably Burkina Faso, Togo, Liberia, and Nigeria, is significant.