Current laws and regulations are inadequate for ensuring that Tajikistan’s land, water, pastureland, and forests are used efficiently and sustainably.Public-sector capacity to implement these laws and regulations also needs to be enhanced if compliance is to be monitored and enforced.Tajikistan is a mountainous country with a primarily rural population dependent on livestock and small-scale agriculture.The snow and glaciers of the high mountains feed the country’s many rivers and streams and permit intensive, irrigated cultivation of farms established in the valleys.This agricultural land is intensively cultivated, with 70% or more irrigated, and cotton production is mandated for all but the smallest farms, even for privately owned commercial farms (dekhan) that were established after 1997 as a result of the reforms of the Soviet-era state and collective farms.
Tajikistan has made some progress in privatization of rural land, especially in increasing the size of plots made available to households for food production.
Two great river systems – the Amu/Panj and Syr Darya – dominate.
Both are shared with neighboring countries and end in the Aral Sea basin in Uzbekistan.
Some projects have helped agricultural workers to become aware of their rights and to claim access to land.
Women’s rights, however, have not been fully recognized; this has become more of an issue as male out-migration for work has continued.
Tajikistan’s transition from a Soviet Republic to an independent nation was delayed by a violent civil war that raged from 1992 to 1997, with significant loss of life and property as well as internal displacement of populations.